1. K-State home
  2. »College of Agriculture
  3. »ASI
  4. »Research and Extension
  5. »Swine
  6. »SwineNutritionGuide
  7. »Vitamins

Animal Sciences and Industry

Animal Sciences and Industry

Kansas State University
232 Weber Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506-8028


Email: asi@ksu.edu


Vitamins are required for normal metabolism in physiological functions such as growth, development, maintenance, and reproduction. Some vitamins are produced by the pig in sufficient quantities to meet its needs and others are present in adequate amounts in feed ingredients commonly used in swine diets. However, several vitamins need to be added to swine diets in the form of a vitamin premix to avoid deficiency and obtain optimal performance.

The vitamins regularly added to a swine premix are distinguished based on solubility as fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble vitamins and are mainly involved in tissue development, calcium and phosphorus metabolism, antioxidant defense, and blood coagulation, respectively. The B-complex vitamins are water-soluble vitamins and are required as co-enzymes in several metabolic processes. The B vitamins most commonly added in swine diets are riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and vitamin B12. Thiamin is sometimes supplemented, but the amounts in feed ingredients is sufficient to meet the requirements. In addition, folic acid, pyridoxine, choline, and biotin are included in sow diets due to the influence of these vitamins on reproductive performance. Carnitine, a vitamin-like compound involved in energy metabolism, can also be added to sow diets to improve reproduction. The maintenance of vitamin potency in the premix mainly relies on providing reliable vitamin sources and ensuring vitamin stability.


KSU Vitamin Premix

 A suggested vitamin premix is available at KSU Premix & Diet Recommendations. This single premix can be used in diets for all stages of production by adjusting the inclusion rate for sow, nursery, grower, and finisher diets.

A sow add pack is also available for sow diets to supply the specific vitamins to enhance reproduction. 

Vitamins can be combined with trace minerals in a VTM premix, but it is recommended to have separate premixes because trace minerals can affect the vitamin stability. Otherwise, VTM premix age must be monitored to ensure it is used before excess vitamin loss.

Swine Day Publications